Heinrich Wolf (1875-1943)

Prologue

Heinrich Wolf was a chess player of about Grandmaster strength and participated in some of the greatest tournaments of his time. Still, it is hard to find information on him. What I try to do here, is to outline his life as good as was possible. For sure, it is not complete and additional information is, as always, welcome.

Biography

Heinrich Wolf was born on 20 October 1875 in Jägerndorf, Austrian Silesia (today Krnov, Czech Republic).[1] He lived on Schlossplatz 1.[2] His mother was Charlotte Wolf, who died on 9 September 1906 at the age of 72. She was buried on the Jewish cemetery in Jägerndorf. His siblings were Dr. Isidor Wolf, Sigmund Wolf, Arnold Wolf and Rosa Funk (née Wolf).[3]

A good overview of his chess career is provided by Rod Edwards.[4]

In March 1894, he played Siegfried Reginald Wolf in the Café Thonethof in Graz.[5] He lost to his older namesake in 18 moves. This is his oldest, published game found so far.

Wolf’s first tournament seems to have been Vienna 1897, won by Carl Schlechter. Wolf scored (+1 -3 =3). He shared 5th place together with “Jaap Eden” (pseudonym), whom he subsequently challenged to a match.[6] The BCM and Jeremy Gaige [7] give no forename, but it was Heinrich Wolf’s first event according to Edwards.[4]

His first definite tournament was the Kolisch Tournament in Vienna, which was played from December 1899 to January 1900. Wolf scored (+5 -4 =2), and shared 5th place with Adolf Julius Zinkl and Georg Marco. Each one of them received a prize of 300 Austrian Crowns. Géza Maróczy won the tournament. Wolf was introduced as one of the excellent practitioners, whose reputations have gone beyond the borders of their homeland.[8] [9] In a tournament review, Wolf was characterized as possessing adventurousness.[10]

In the Munich 1900 Meisterturnier, which took place from July to August, Wolf scored (+6 -6 =3). He shared 7th place with Johann Nepomuk Berger, Dawid Janowsky and Jackson Whipps Showalter. These four shared the 7th and 8th prizes (200 + 150 Mark). Schlechter won the tournament.[11]

Around June or July 1901, Wolf beat Carl Dorasil in a match in the Troppau Chess Club (Troppau, Austrian Silesia, today Opava, Czech Republic). Winner was to be the first to win five games, and Wolf won the first five games, allowing not even one draw.[12]

Wolf won the Vienna Chess Club tournament in January 1902 together with Janowsky. He scored (+3 -2 =3) and received 300 Austrian Crowns for his games. 200 Crowns was the prize for the winner. The tournament was preparation for Monte Carlo 1902.[13]

At Monte Carlo 1902, Wolf shared 5th place with Schlechter and Siegbert Tarrasch. He scored 12.0 points and got 750 Francs as prize money. The unusual way of counting draws and replaying of those games hurt Wolf’s final standings. He would have come in sole 5th with a traditional scoring system. Maróczy won the tournament.[14]

On 12 March 1902, right after Monte Carlo, Wolf became a member of the Internationale Vereinigung der Schachmeister.[2] This was a high-profile association of chess players, founded in 1900.[15]

At the Hanover 1902 Meisterturnier, played from July to August, Wolf shared 5th place with William Newart Napier. He scored (+9 -6 =2) and won 275 Mark prize money. Janowsky won the tournament.[16] Right after the tournament, Wolf drew a match against Ossip Samoilovich Bernstein by the score of (+1 -1 =6).[17]

Wolf won a match against Bernhard Kagan in Berlin in September 1902, by the score of 4.5-0.5.[4]

At Monte Carlo 1903, played from February to March, Wolf came in 7th with 14.0 points and received 725 Francs for the games played. Tarrasch won. In this double-round robin tournament, Wolf began with 5.5 points (+5 -7 =1), but then improved in the second cycle, where he scored 8.5 points (+6 -2 =5).[18] On their travel back from Monte Carlo, Wolf and Maróczy stayed for a few days in Vienna. They played a consultation game on March 20. Maróczy and Bernhard Fleissig had White against Wolf and Hugo Fähndrich, and won the game.[19]

In July 1904, the Deutsche Schachblätter published a list of the strongest contemporaneous masters, based on the results in international tournaments from 1851 to Cambridge Springs 1904. The winning percentage was decisive for the placement. Wolf is on place 17 (out of 65). He had participated in 4 international tournaments, scoring in 83 games (+37 -27 =19), i. e. 56.02% scored points.[20]

From July to August 1904, the Koburg 1904 Meisterturnier took place. Wolf scored only (+3 -3 =6), and shared 8th place together with Hugo Süchting. They missed the prize ranks.[21] According to Zinkl, everyone had expected Wolf to fare better.[22]

In 1904, Wolf became an Einzelmitglied (single member) of the German Chess Federation, receiving the membership number 47. Einzelmitglieder had to pay a membership fee of 5 Marks per year.[23]

The Vienna Chess Club hosted a King’s Gambit Declined tournament from November 1904 to January 1905. There was a theoretical discussion about Black’s best reply after 1.e4 e5 2.f4 – either Tarrasch’s suggested 2…d5 or 2…Bc5. The goal of the tournament was to test the latter variation. It ended with 24 wins for White, 24 wins for Black and 24 draws. Schlechter won the tournament. Wolf shared 4th place with Augustin Neumann, receiving 125 Austrian Crowns prize money. He had a slow start, but became stronger in the later part of the tournament, scoring (+5 -6 =4), in addition to winning two games on forfeit (against Nandor Müller and Marco).[24]

Wolf participated in the Austro-Hungarian Meisterturnier in Vienna 1905, played from February to March. Wolf came in 2nd and won 500 Austrian Crowns.[25] Wolf scored (+9 -3 =6) in this double-round robin tournament, and was close to overtaking the winner Schlechter at one point. Wolf’s playing style was characterized as very aggressive, and he tried to attack with the White and Black pieces.[26]

The Ostend 1905 International Master tournament saw Wolf only come in 10th. He scored (+7 -9 =10). Maróczy won the tournament.[27] The Neue Freie Presse commented, that Wolf deserved a better score.[28]

In July 1905, Wolf was newly listed as a Gönner (benefactor) of the German Chess Federation (number 17).[29] A Gönner was someone, who either paid 250 Marks once, or 25 Marks per year for ten years.[23]

At the Barmen 1905 Meisterturnier A, played in August,[30] Wolf shared 7th place together with Mikhail Chigorin. Wolf scored (+2 -3 =10) and received 125 Mark prize money. Maróczy and Janowsky were joint winners.[31]

The 1906 edition of the Ostend tournament took place from June to July. 36 chess players participated in this large tournament, which consisted of 5 stages.[32] At the beginning, Wolf was in group D. There were 9 players per group in four groups. In phase 1 of stage 1, consisting of 9 rounds, group A played group B, and group C played group D. Afterwards, the last 3 players of each group were eliminated. Wolf had to face Frank James Marshall, Julius Perlis, Jacques Mieses, Rudolf Spielmann, Süchting, Richard Teichmann, Moritz Lewitt, Boris Evgenievich Maljutin and Alfred M. Ehrhardt Post. After 5 rounds, Wolf had scored 3.0 points, but after 9 rounds had only accumulated 3.5 points (+2 -4 =3). He shared 6th-7th place with Jean Taubenhaus. The Gelbfuhs tie-break system was used, so Wolf reached phase 2, instead of Taubenhaus.[33] [34] In phase 2 of stage 1, the 6 players of group A played group C, and group B played group D. After 6 rounds, the last two players of each group were eliminated. Wolf was in group D, and faced Hans Fahrni, Walter John, Paul Johner, Marco, Maróczy and Akiva Rubinstein. He scored +3 -3 =0 (beating Fahrni, John and Johner, and losing to Marco, Maróczy and Rubinstein). This was just enough to accumulate 6.5 points overall and share last place with Chigorin – both players were eliminated.[33] In a tournament review, Zinkl called Adolf Albin, Marco, Schlechter and Heinrich Wolf the new Austrian generation. Schlechter won the tournament.[35]

The Nuremberg 1906 Meisterturnier from July to August, gave rise to some controversies. Wolf was elected reserve referee, and went on to share 6th place with Georg Salwe. He scored (+6 -3 =7) and 325 Mark prize money. Marshall won the event.[36] Wolf was one of the players, who noted digs at professional chess players in the opening speech. The German Chess Federation’s president, Rudolf Gebhardt, and Otto Beyer claimed to have been misunderstood.[37]

Marshall was happy about his win over Wolf (he had drawn Schlechter and Tarrasch), and the Germans “went mad” over it. He didn’t feel recognized, and so took revenge by winning the tournament, and showing them how chess was played, if he was healthy. However, he himself was ambiguous about the quality of the game, calling it “a gem or a swindle.”[38]

The Deutsche Moskauer Zeitung mentioned Chigorin’s loss to Erich Cohn, and then noted, that gentlemen called Cohn seemed dangerous to Chigorin, giving the names of Cohn, Leo Fleischmann Forgacs, Salwe and Wolf (in the tournament, Chigorin had lost to all of them). He wrote that Salwe and Wolf had a good start into the tournament. They were expected to score higher after that, but not only playing strength is necessary to succeed, but also endurance.[39]

His mother, Charlotte Wolf, passed away on 9 September 1906 at the age of 72, and the funeral took place on September 11 on 3 p.m. on the Jewish cemetery.[3]

The First Trebitsch Memorial took place in Vienna in January 1907. Wolf shared 9th place with Spielmann and Giovanni Martinolich. They missed out on the prize ranks, while Mieses won the tournament. Wolf scored (+3 -4 =6), starting strongly with 4.0/6, but then he didn’t score a further win.[40] Wolf had disappointed, but his reputation was too firmly grounded to be shaken by one failure. His games were always interesting. He often didn’t just fight like a wolf, but like a lion, yet everyone had his weak moments.[41]

Together with Ernst Schossberger, Wolf had White in a consultation game against Perlis and Savielly Tartakower. The game was played in the Vienna Café Central from February 5 to 6, 1907. It lasted 8 hours overall, and ended in a draw.[42]

Karlsbad 1907 was called the “historical turning point of our chess history” and the “historically most interesting and important tournament of this century” by Jacques Hannak in 1915. He drew this conclusion, because it was the event, wherein the new generation (spearheaded by Rubinstein) overtook the old guard (represented by Maróczy, who was close to playing a World Championship match against Emanuel Lasker in 1906).[43]

Ludwig Bachmann predicted, that Wolf would cause the “Grandmasters” problems.[44] The tournament took place from August to September, and Wolf came in 10th, winning 250 crowns prize money. He scored (+5 -4 =11).[45] Therefore, Wolf was called the king of draws, together with Berger. Wolf was as amiable as cautious. In addition, he won a very long tournament game against Duras, which lasted 22 hours and 168 moves. In addition, he won his seventh consecutive game against Chigorin.[46]

The tournament is also remarkable for an incident, told by Hans Kmoch and Fred Reinfeld. Rubinstein was leading prior to the last round, one point ahead of Maróczy, and now had Black against Wolf. For Maróczy to reach shared 1st place, Wolf would have to beat Rubinstein, while the Hungarian had to win against Janowsky (what he did). The spectators at Karlsbad (today Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic) rooted for their Austrian-Hungarian representative Maróczy. Wolf, also from Austria-Hungary and a close friend of Maróczy’s, promised to beat “that Polish upstart.” Despite the charged atmosphere before, after about ten moves into the game, Wolf was willing to make a draw. This would have secured sole 1st place for Rubinstein, but he played on. He outplayed Wolf until he reached a winning position, but on move 24 went for a forced draw instead. When he was asked if he had seen the winning combination, he said yes, but that he only needed a draw. And that against Wolf, he made a draw when he wanted to, not when Wolf wanted to.[47] [48]

At Düsseldorf 1908 Meisterturnier, Wolf was considered one of Marshall’s “chief rivals for the honor of first place.”[49] The tournament took place in August, and Wolf only shared 10th place. He scored (+2 -4 =9) and missed out the prize ranks.[50] His result was explained by his lack of practice.[51] This was Wolf’s last pre-war tournament.

During the Lasker-Tarrasch World Championship match from August to September 1908, “Wolf” of Vienna was in Munich and commented on the games. He was in one corner, Semion Alapin in the other. Alapin always contradicted Wolf’s analyses, and sometimes both masters were involved in controversies, entertaining the spectators.[52] Since Tarrasch gives no forename, there is some uncertainty as to the commentator’s identity.[53]

Wolf played an interesting game against Schossberger at the end of March 1909, in the Vienna Café Central (Wien I. Herrengasse).[54]

Wolf arrived for the Lasker-Schlechter World Championship match in 1910 on day 2 as a guest, when the first game was resumed.[55] He can be seen standing behind Lasker in the respective picture.[56]

On March 25 and 26, 1911 Vienna contested a cable match versus Berlin. The match ended 4:4. Wolf faced Post on board 7 and scored the only win for Vienna.[57]

Wolf was on the preliminary list of the Karlsbad 1911 participants,[58] but missing from the final line-up.[59] It is not clear, why he didn’t participate in the end.

Three miniatures played in the Vienna Café Central on April 12 and 13, 1911 are given in the Wiener Schachzeitung.[60] Games he won in the Vienna Café Central in April 1912,[61] and March 1913 [62] were also published.

Paula Kalmar (née Klein) wrote that she was received regular chess lessons from Wolf in 1920 and 1921, and she said that through him she opened up the actual spirit of chess. She compared him to Teodor Leszetycki, the famous piano teacher.[63]

The Bad Pistyan 1922 tournament took place in April and included a Grandmaster section.[64] Wolf shared 6th place with Friedrich Sämisch, scoring 9.5 points. Alois Wotawa pointed out, that the result was remarkable considering that Wolf hadn’t played a tournament game for years. Wolf played better during the first half of the tournament, and lacked endurance in the end.[65]

In the Teplitz-Schönau Meisterturnier in October 1922, Wolf scored (+2 -4 =7).[66] This was just good enough for eighth place, but Wolf won the first Brilliancy prize for his victory over Richard Réti, the joint tournament winner with Spielmann.[67]

From November to December 1922, the Vienna Meisterturnier took place. Wolf came in 3rd with 9.5 points, scoring (+7 -2 =5).[68] [69] This was an outstanding success for Wolf, who had demonstrated greater playing strength than in the past.[69] Dr. Viktor Much, an eye-witness of the tournament, made some enlightening remarks about Wolf in an 1984 interview: After being asked about the Austrian participants, he called Wolf the most friendly, since he always gave detailed answers to questions and willingly showed his game. As an ophthalmologist-to-be, Dr. Much noted that Wolf suffered from strabismus. When the humble Wolf topped the standings, he discarded thoughts of winning the tournament, saying that he had to survive tomorrow’s game – he had to play Rubinstein, and lost. Dr. Much said, that Wolf practically only played in coffee houses and earned his living that way. On his win over Alekhine, Wolf said that he had dug his own grave and all by himself.[70]

Wolf was a regular contributor to the Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, which was published for the first time in 1923 after World War I (and called Wiener Schach-Zeitung from 1924 on). In 1923, he annotated games,[71] and published an article on correspondence chess in April, together with an annotated game against the City of Groningen. He noted the positive sides of correspondence chess games, eliminating time trouble and helping to avoid opening disasters, and also allowing the players to analyze the game when in good mental and physical condition.[72]

From April to May 1923, Wolf participated in the Karlsbad Meisterturnier.[73] [74] At the drawing of lots, Wolf drew the number 17.[75] He came in 14th with 6.5 points, scoring (+3 -7 =7).[76] After his great success at Vienna, Wolf was crushed by an avalanche of bad luck this time, according to Marco.[77]

In June 1923, it was reported that Wolf had recently played a 27-board Simul against the SchachfreundeSüdost.” It lasted 6 hours, until 01:30 at night, and Wolf scored (+20 -0 =7). He also annotated a game against an amateur.[78]

In a pre-tournament report on the Mährisch-Ostrau 1923 Meisterturnier, Vladimir Vuković wrote, that Wolf was the fourth Viennese iron in the fire there, and could not yet be thrown on the scrap heap.[79] The tournament took place in July, and Wolf came in shared 12th, with 4.5 points (+2 -6 =5). He showed a lot of insecurity.[80] Wolf described an incident during his game against Tarrasch. Wolf had White, but accepted a draw offer in a winning position. Shortly before the adjournment of the game, his brother appeared and wished to talk to him in an important private matter. So Wolf felt pressed to accept a draw, without further analysis during the break.[81] This was Wolf’s last tournament.

Wolf published articles and annotated games in the Wiener Schach-Zeitung in November [82] and December [83] 1924.

The Hakoah Chess Club player Dünmann was called “Meister” Wolf’s pupil. The upcoming engagement of Paula Kalmar to Heinrich Wolf was announced.[84]

In December 1924, on account of many chess players leaving Vienna – Tartakower had just moved permanently to Paris – it was noted, that Wolf was one of the few left in Vienna. Wolf was called the actual teacher of two generations.[85]

In 1925, Heinrich Wolf married Paula Kalmar. In January 1925,[86] she was still called “Paula Kalmar” and called “Paula Wolf-Kalmar ” for the first time in December 1925.[87]

In 1925, Wolf again annotated games [88] [89] [90] and contributed articles [81] – even a theoretical dispute with Ernst Grünfeld over the opening, now known as Grünfeld Defense.[91]

In 1926, Wolf was tournament director of the Semmering tournament in Vienna in March.[92] He again published several annotated games,[93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] and an article.[99]

Some time after the Capablanca-Alekhine Wolrd Championship match, which ended in November 1927, the Wiener Schach-Zeitung sent a letter of congratulations to Alekhine. The new World Champion thanked the Wiener Schach-Zeitung and his colleagues Grünfeld, Spielmann, Sandor Takács and Heinrich Wolf for the compliment.[100] A game from April annotated by Wolf can also be found.[101]

The Wiener Schach-Zeitung conducted a survey, posing questions to the “Chess World.” The 3rd question was, of which well-known chess player they learned the most from. Wolf came in 9th with 14 votes, ahead of Wilhelm Steinitz among others.[102]

In March 1930, Wolf of North Vienna (Siegfried Reginald is mentioned separately) was one of the possible candidates for playing in a City match between Vienna and Budapest.[103] “H. W.” wrote a news item on Alekhine’s hotel room in Esseg (today Osijek, Croatia) catching fire. The World Champion was rescued in time.[104]

In March 1931, a game was published with Wolf’s annotations.[105]

On 29 September 1931, Paula Kalmar-Wolf passed away unexpectedly. She suffered from diabetes. Austria’s strongest female chess player, Kalmar-Wolf scored well in Women’s World championships: A 3rd place at London 1927, and two 2nd places at Hamburg 1930 and Prague 1931.[106] Paula Kalmar-Wolf was born on 11 April 1880 in Agram (today Zagreb, Croatia) which belonged to Austria-Hungary. She didn’t learn chess until 1913. Apart from her later husband Heinrich Wolf, she had another well-known teacher in Réti. She helped to develop Women’s Chess in Austria.[107]

From January to February 1933, Wolf played in several consultation games in the Vienna Chess Club. His teams scored (+1 -1 =2).[108] On December 12, he was involved in another consultation game.[109]

On 20 February 1934, Wolf participated in a consultation game in Vienna and published it with his annotations.[110]

Emanuel Lasker visited Vienna in late April 1934. Among the events were some consultation games, wherein he was supported by Wolf. In the printed game, played on 1 May 1934, Lasker and Wolf had the White pieces. They lost after Wolf announced the mistaken move 12.Kxd2 overhastily.[111]

In 1935, Wolf published an article,[112] and annotated a game.[113] After Euwe beat Alekhine to become the new World Champion, a revenge match in Austria was discussed. In December it was announced, that Wolf would then be the match director.[114] The return match took place in the Netherlands in 1937, instead.[115]

Wolf annotated three games of the match between Eliskases and Spielmann in December 1936.[116] The “Altmeister” Heinrich Wolf noted on (1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3) 2…Ne4, that he faced it against its originator, Ladislaus Baron Döry, and was was happy to draw the game. He believed that a refutation could hardly be found.[117]

Two games with annotations by Wolf can be found in the 1938 Wiener Schach-Zeitung.[118] [119]

Heinrich Wolf died in 1943.[1] He was killed by the Nazis.[120]

Epilogue

A short summary of his life: Heinrich Wolf was born on 20 October 1875 in Jägerndorf (Austria Hungary, today Krnov, Czech Republic), and had four siblings. He was murdered by the Nazis in 1943. He was an Austrian chess player of Grandmaster strength, whose tournament (and match) career ran from about 1899 to 1908, and 1922 to 1923. His results were solid, and sometimes excellent (Vienna 1902, 1905 and 1922). In addition, he made his living by playing in coffee houses, teaching chess, publishing articles and annotated games, and once directed a tournament. In 1925, he married his former pupil and strongest Austrian Women’s chess player, Paula Kalmar (née Klein), who passed away in 1931. Wolf himself contributed to the Wiener Schach-Zeitung until 1938, also the final year of the publication.

It is notable, how few information can be found about him. It was common to celebrate an important chess player’s 50th birthday with an article on his life. Since there were two excellent Austrian chess publications in 1925 – the Wiener Schach-Zeitung and the Österreichische Schachrundschau (its final year of publication) – one would have expected such an article on Wolf, also. But there isn’t, and I didn’t find a biographical article in earlier or later publications either. And this, although Wolf was a strong Viennese master and contributor the Wiener Schach-Zeitung. Not even the exact date of his marriage to Paula Kalmar was given. It seems likely to me, that he just didn’t want to disclose too much about himself – not that he had to hide something, but rather out of modesty.

So I tried to collect everything I found in here, but I’m sure that I missed something even in the publications I looked through. It’s possible, that some articles and news items were written by him, but not signed. And I wouldn’t be surprised if I had missed a lot of his annotated games. It was never my goal to link to all of them, I rather wanted to show the scope of his work, not present it in full. He wrote for other publications also, e. g. the game in source [89] is originally from the Neue Wiener Tagblatt, and he wrote for Kagans Neueste Schachnachrichten about life in the Café Central. This information is from Michael Ehn’s and Ernst Strouhal’s Luftmenschen: die Schachspieler von Wien: Materialien und Topographien zu einer städtischen Randfigur 1700-1938 (Vienna, 1998) – a book I don’t have access to.

So his biography contains a lot of gaps, and there are many questions left: Few traces of his chess activity from the 19th century are left, and when he appeared on the tournament scene, he seemed to already have been an established young chess player. Why was his tournament career so short, confined to two periods and what did he do in between. I noted the article he wrote on correspondence chess, yet didn’t find him participate in those correspondence events reported in the Wiener Schach-Zeitung. He also didn’t participate in many of the smaller Viennese tournaments. It is notable that his namesake, Siegfried Reginald, played much more often and for a longer period of time than Heinrich and also correspondence chess, so it is important to not confuse these two and assign events/games to the wrong “Wolf” (there were even two more, Siegfried Augustin and Alfred Emil). The hardest part is probably to find out more about the last years of his life.

Sources

[1] Jeremy Gaige, Chess Personalia – A biobibliography, paperback edition, McFarland 2005, p. 468

[2] Die “Internationale Vereinigung der Schachmeister”, Wiener Schachzeitung, May-June 1902, issue 5/6, p. 128. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[3] Neue Freie Presse, 12 September 1906, p. 20. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[4] Rod Edwards, Heinrich Wolf.

[5] Wiener Schachzeitung, June 1899, issue 6, pp. 92-93. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[6] British Chess Magazine, July 1897, pp. 261-262

[7] Jeremy Gaige, Name Index to Chess Tournament Crosstables, electronic edition by Anders Thulin, Malmö, 10 December 2005, p. 300.

[8] Das Kolisch-Turnier 1899, Wiener Schachzeitung, January 1900, issue 1, pp. 25-27. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[9] Interestingly, he was not among the strongest players in Vienna (not from) mentioned by Armin Friedmann in 1899. See Armin Friedmann, Schach in Wien, Wiener Abendpost, 13 November 1899. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, December 1899, issue 12, pp. 189-192. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. He may not have had established himself in Vienna back then yet, or the place of residence was decisive.

[10] Das Wiener Schachturnier, Wiener Abendpost, 4 January 1900. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, January 1900, issue 1, pp. 27-29. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[11] XII. Congress des Deutschen Schachbundes, Wiener Schachzeitung, August-September 1900, issue 8/9, p. 177. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[12] Wiener Schachzeitung, July 1901, issue 7, p. 125. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Source for C. Dorasil’s forename is Wiener Schachzeitung, April 1899, issue 4, p. 54. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[13] Wiener Schachzeitung, April 1902, issue 4, p. 65. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[14] Wiener Schachzeitung, February-March 1902, issue 2/3, pp. 57-59. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[15] Wiener Schachzeitung, August-September 1900, issue 8/9, p. 170. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. And Schachmeisterbund, Wiener Schachzeitung, November 1900, issue 11, pp. 231-232. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[16] Wiener Schachzeitung, September 1902, issue 9, p. 186. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[17] Wiener Schachzeitung, September 1902, issue 9, p. 183. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[18] Wiener Schachzeitung, February 1903, issue 2, pp. 45-47. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[19] Wiener Schachzeitung, January 1904, issue 1, pp. 5-7. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[20] Dr. F. B., Deutsche Schachzeitung, July 1904. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, July-August 1905, issue 7/8, pp. 252-254. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[21] Wiener Schachzeitung, October-November 1904, issue 10/11, p. 332. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[22] Adolf Julius Zinkl, Der Koburger Schachkongreß, Wiener Schachzeitung, October-November 1904, issue 10/11, pp. 336-337. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[23] Wiener Schachzeitung, July 1904, issue 7, pp. 206-212. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[24] Das abgelehnte Königsgambit-Turnier im Wiener Schachklub, Wiener Schachzeitung, January 1905, issue 1, pp. 9-11. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[25] Wiener Schachzeitung, January 1905, issue 1, p. 31. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. And Wiener Schachzeitung, February 1905, issue 2, pp. 41-42. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[26] Österreichisch-ungarisches Meisterturnier, Wiener Schachzeitung, March 1905, issue 3, pp. 73-74. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[27] Das internationale Meisterturnier in Ostende, Wiener Schachzeitung, September-October 1905, issue 9/10, pp. 261-269. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[28] Das Weltmeisterschaftsturnier in Ostende, Neue Freie Presse, 21 July 1905, p. 7. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[29] Wiener Schachzeitung, July-August 1905, issue 7/8, p. 255. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[30] Internationaler Schachkongreß in Barmen 12. bis 29. oder 30. August 1905, Wiener Schachzeitung, March 1905, issue 3, p. 65. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[31] Wiener Schachzeitung, September 1906, issue 9, pp. 278-283. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Wolf is number 16 on the group picture on p. 282.

[32] John Donaldson and Nikolay Minev, The Life & Games of Akiva Rubinstein – Volume 1: Uncrowned King, 2nd edition, Russell Enterprises, 2006, pp. 58-73.

[33] Hamburger Nachrichten, Rigaer Tagblatt. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, Supplement 1906, issue 9, pp. 299-309. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[34] The Gelbfuhs tie-break system was a precursor of the Sonneborn-Berger tie-break system. See Franz Mészáros, Schach, p. 16, for more information.

[35] Adolf Julius Zinkl, Schlußworte zum Ostender Schachturnier, Neue Freie Presse, 22 July 1906, p. 12. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[36] XV. Kongreß des Deutschen Schachbundes in Nürnberg, Wiener Schachzeitung, Supplement 1906, issue 9, pp. 272-275. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[37] Wiener Schachzeitung, March-April 1907, issue 3/4, p. 98. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[38] New-Yorker Staatszeitung, 26 August 1906. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, January-February 1907, issue 1/2, pp. 39-41. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[39] Deutsche Moskauer Zeitung. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, January-February 1907, issue 1/2, pp. 33-35. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[40] Wiener Schachzeitung, January-February 1907, issue 1/2, pp. 14-15. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[41] Wiener Schachzeitung, January-February 1907, issue 1/2, pp. 5-13. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[42] Zur Theorie der französischen Verteidigung, Wiener Schachzeitung, July-August 1908, issue 7/8, pp. 243-246. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[43] Jacques Hannak, 1900 bis 1915, Wiener Schachzeitung, November-December 1915, issue 21/24, pp. 247-257 (discussion of Karlsbad 1907 is on p. 252). In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[44] Ludwig Ernst Bachmann, Neue Augsburger Zeitung, 11 September 1907. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, Supplement 1907, issue 10/11, pp. 363-365. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[45] Das internationale Turnier in Karlsbad 19. August bis 17. September 1907, Wiener Schachzeitung, Supplement 1907, issue 10/11, pp. 357-361. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[46] Bohemia, 29 September 1907. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, Supplement 1907, issue 10/11, pp. 365-368. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[47] Hans Kmoch and Fred Reinfeld, Chess Review, October 1950, pp. 299-301. In John Donaldson and Nikolay Minev, The Life & Games of Akiva Rubinstein – Volume 1: Uncrowned King, 2nd edition, Russell Enterprises, 2006, pp. 106-107.

[48] The story, told 43 years after the tournament, is certainly a good explanation for Rubinstein taking the draw. It seems unlikely, that he missed the winning combination, so he may simply have gone for the draw, since it was a safe way to win the tournament and sole first prize. A win against Wolf would have been of no use, since there wasn’t a rating system like Elo today. However, these stories have to be taken with a grain of salt, and not just details may be wrong. It should be noted, that the story is not in line with the other descriptions of both, Wolf’s and Rubinstein’s characters. So this may have been a reaction of both towards the patriotically charged atmosphere back then, with Wolf wanting to be the one who helped the local hero win the tournament, and Rubinstein feeling hurt by the dismissive tattle.

[49] Marshall vs. Wolf, Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York), 23 August 1908, p. 44. In Brooklyn Newsstand.

[50] Wiener Schachzeitung, July-August 1908, issue 7/8, p. 247. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[51] Sieger und Besiegte im Düsseldorfer Schachturnier, Neue Freie Presse, 21 August 1908, p. 9. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[52] Siegbert Tarrasch, Der Schachwettkampf Lasker-Tarrasch um die Weltmeisterschaft im August-September 1908, Jens-Erik Rudolph Verlag, Hamburg 2009. Originally Veit & Comp., Leipzig 1908, p. 106. Original: “[…] der allezeit lustige Wiener Meister Wolf.”

[53] It seems likely, that it was indeed Heinrich, and not Siegfried Reginald. Heinrich was of Grandmaster strength, and clearly stronger than Siegfried Reginald or even Siegfried Augustin. He was therefore a good choice to comment on the games, and comparable in strength to the other commentator, Alapin. Also notable is, that the Düsseldorf tournament lasted until August 19, while the World Championship commenced on August 17 in Düsseldorf. The Munich leg of the match began on September 1, so Wolf could have been at least present there already during the Düsseldorf leg.

[54] Aus dem Café Central, Wiener Schachzeitung, January-February 1910, issue 2/3, pp. 49-51. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[55] Wiener Schachzeitung, January 1910, issue 1, p. 3. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[56] Wiener Schachzeitung, February-March 1910, issue 4/6, p. 59. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[57] Der telegraphische Schachwettkampf Berlin-Wien, Wiener Schachzeitung, June 1911, issue 9/11, pp. 166-169. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Wolf can be seen on the picture on p. 167, number 2 sitting at the front.

[58] Wiener Schachzeitung, June 1911, issue 12, p. 200. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[59] Georg Marco, Karlsbader Tagblatt, 21 August 1911. Reprinted in Wiener Schachzeitung, July-August 1911, issue 13/16, p. 245. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[60] Wiener Schachzeitung, June 1911, issue 9/11, pp. 162-164. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[61] Wiener Schachzeitung, November-December 1912, issue 21/24, pp. 344. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[62] Wiener Schachzeitung, October-November 1913, issue 19/22, pp. 318-319. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[63] Paula Kalmar, Die Frau im Schachleben, Neue Freie Presse, 20 February 1923, pp. 10-11. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[64] Meisterturnier in Pistyan, Österreichische Schachrundschau, February 1922, issue 2, p. 2. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[65] Alois Wotawa, Das Schachmeisterturnier in Pistyan, Österreichische Schachrundschau, April 1922, issue 4, pp. 25-27. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[66] John Donaldson and Nikolay Minev, The Life & Games of Akiva Rubinstein – Volume 2: The Later Years, 2nd edition, Russell Enterprises, 2011, p. 72.

[67] Alois Wotawa, Das Schachmeisterturnier von Teplitz-Schönau, Österreichische Schachrundschau, September 1922, issue 8, pp. 60-27. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[68] John Donaldson and Nikolay Minev, The Life & Games of Akiva Rubinstein – Volume 2: The Later Years, 2nd edition, Russell Enterprises, 2011, p. 83.

[69] Der internation. Schachkongreß in Wien, Österreichische Schachrundschau, November-December 1922, issue 10/12, pp. 75-78. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[70] Michael Ehn interview with Dr. Viktor Much in 1984, Triumph und Tragödie, KARL, issue 3, 2013, pp. 40-43. Original: “Wolf war der Freundlichste, weil er den Zuschauern nach der Partie ausführlich auf ihre Fragen antwortete und gern seine Partien zeigte, was Rubinstein nie tat. Er schielte übrigens schrecklich, was mir als angehendem Augenarzt besonders auffiel.” (p. 42); “Unglaublicherweise hatte inzwischen der bescheidene Heinrich Wolf die Spitze erklommen, der ja praktisch nur im Kaffeehaus spielte und auch davon lebte. Die Gratulationen der Zuschauer und die Gedanken an einen Turniersieg wies er weit von sich: ‘Wenn ich nur morgen überlebe.’ Er hatte nämlich gegen Rubinstein anzutreten und überlebte nicht.” (pp. 42-43); “Er hat sich sein Grab freiwillig und ganz allein geschaufelt.” (p. 43).

[71] Inhaltsverzeichnis, Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, 1923, p. XIII. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[72] Heinrich Wolf, Korrespondenzschach, Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, April 1923, issue 2, pp. 39-41. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Groningen’s team captains were J. A. Wolthuis and J. van Melle.

[73] Das Meisterturnier in Karlsbad, Österreichische Schachrundschau, April 1923, issue 4, pp. 25-26. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[74] Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, June 1923, issue 4, p. 113. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[75] Drittes internationales Schachmeisterturnier in Karlsbad, Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, May 1923, issue 3, pp. 67-68. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[76] Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, June 1923, issue 4, p. 115. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[77] Georg Marco, Die Launen Caïssas, Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, June 1923, issue 4, pp. 116-118. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[78] Heinrich Wolf, Simultanschach, Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, June 1923, issue 4, p. 121. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[79] Vladimir Vuković, Das internationale Meisterturnier Mährisch-Ostrau 1923, Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, July 1923, issue 5, pp. 159-160. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[80] Savielly Tartakower, Mährisch-Ostrau 1923, Neue Wiener Schach-Zeitung, August 1923, issue 6, pp. 164-170. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[81] Heinrich Wolf, Zuweilen irrt der Meister und auch der Glossator!, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, April 1925, issue 7, pp. 97-99. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[82] Heinrich Wof, Schönheitspreise, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, November 1924, issue 22, pp. 321-323. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[83] Heinrich Wolf, Der Amateur Fünfmeisterkampf zu Wien, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, December 1924, issue 24, pp. 359-361. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[84] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, November 1924, issue 22, p. 332. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[85] Interessante Zeitfragen, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, December 1924, issue 23, p. 343. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[86] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, January 1925, issue 1, p. 11. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[87] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, December 1925, issue 23, p. 362. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[88] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, February 1925, issue 4, pp. 56-57. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[89] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, October 1925, issue 19/20, pp. 290-292. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[90] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, December 1925, issue 23, p. 359. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[91] Heinrich Wolf, Zuweilen irrt der Meister und auch der Theoretiker, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, April 1925, issue 8, pp. 121-122. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[92] Erwin Kondor, Das Internationale Panhans-Turnier am Semmering, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, March 1926, issue 6, pp. 81-85. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[93] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, January 1926, issue 1, pp. 4-5. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[94] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, May 1926, issue 9, p. 139. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[95] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, May 1926, issue 10, pp. 153-154. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[96] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, August-September 1926, issue 16/17, pp. 258-260. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[97] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, August-September 1926, issue 16/17, pp. 262-263. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[98] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, November-December 1926, issue 22/23, pp. 344-346. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[99] Heinrich Wolf, Damenturnier im Wiener Schachklub, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, January 1926, issue 1, pp. 5-7. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[100] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, March 1928, issue 5, p. 77. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[101] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, May 1927, issue 9/10, pp. 125-126. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[102] Unsere zehn Rundfragen, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, June 1929, issue 11, p. 168. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[103] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, March 1930, issue 5/6, p. 91. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[104] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, December 1930, issue 23/24, p. 374. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[105] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, March 1931, issue 6, pp. 81-83. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[106] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, October 1931, issue 19/20, pp. 311-312. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[107] Michael Ehn, Die erste österreichische Schachmeisterin: Paula Kalmar-Wolf. In Karoline Spalt, Frau Schach.

[108] Die Beratungskämpfe im Wiener Schachklub, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, March 1933, issue 5, pp. 72-76. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[109] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, February 1934, issue 3, p. 36. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[110] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, March 1934, issue 6, pp. 84-85. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[111] Dr. Emanuel Lasker in Wien, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, March 1934, issue 10/11, pp. 166-171. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[112] Heinrich Wolf, Der Schachkongreß zu Great Yarmouth, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, July 1935, issue 13/14, pp. 194-197. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[113] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, October 1935, issue 19, p. 298. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[114] Revanche-Wettkampf Aljechin-Euwe in Österreich, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, December 1935, issue 23/24, p. 353. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[115] Um die Weltmeisterschaft!, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, October 1937, issue 19, p. 289. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[116] Um die Vorkämpferschaft von Österreich, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, December 1936, issue 23/24, pp. 355-359. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[117] Ladislaus Baron Döry, Zur Verteidigung 1. d4 Sf6, 2. Sf3 Sf6-e4!!, Wiener Schach-Zeitung, December 1936, issue 23/24, p. 359. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[118] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, 15 January 1938, issue 2, pp. 18-19. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[119] Wiener Schach-Zeitung, 5 March 1938, issue 9, pp. 103-104. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.

[120] David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld, The Oxford Companion to Chess, Oxford University Press, 1984, p. 380

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